9 Steps to Become an Interventional Radiology Nurse Practitioner + Salary


Written By: Jennifer Schlette MSN, RN


So, you're ready to level up your nursing career, but the possibilities have got you feeling like a deer in headlights. Fear not, my friend! Have you ever considered becoming an Interventional Radiology Nurse Practitioner? Picture yourself caring for patients in various settings while they undergo radiological procedures and imaging. Pretty cool, huh? But don't worry if you don't know how to become an interventional radiology nurse practitioner? Hang on tight as I give you the lowdown on everything you need to know about becoming an interventional radiology NP. We will look at the role of the interventional radiology nurse practitioner – what do they do, steps-to-become, pros & cons, and salary. So, sharpen your #2 pencil and let’s take this journey together!



WHAT DOES AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER DO? – 5 MAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


An interventional radiology nurse practitioner is a highly skilled healthcare professional that has certain duties and responsibilities that are specific to this career path. Let's take a deeper dive into some of the main duties and responsibilities that you will be responsible for if you decide to become an interventional radiology nurse practitioner.

1. Assessment:

As an Interventional Radiology Nurse Practitioner, you will need some pretty stellar assessment skills to hone in on anything that may appear out of the ordinary on your patient before their procedure is to begin. You will also need to assess if the patient has any allergies to any medications or latex, assess their vital signs like a hawk throughout and after their procedure for any abnormalities, and keep track of their medical history and current medications that they may be taking.

RECOMMENDED ONLINE NURSE PRACTITIONER PROGRAMS

2. Teaching:

As an interventional radiology nurse practitioner you will need to teach your patients and their families about what they can anticipate during their procedure and what their post-discharge care will look like. You will also need to educate them on any complications that could occur during and after their procedure.

3. Consenting patients:

One of your duties as an interventional radiology NP will be to explain the nitty-gritty of the patient’s interventional radiology procedure to them and ensure that they know what the procedure is about. You'll also lay out the potential risks and complications involved and answer any questions they hustle your way.

4. Interpretation of laboratory and diagnostic tests:

One of your most crucial jobs as an interventional radiology NP is deciphering all those fancy lab results and diagnostic tests. Seriously, nailing this part could mean the difference between life and death for your patient. I mean, you do not want to go poking holes in anyone who can not stop bleeding.

5. Performs Procedures:

As an interventional radiology NP, flex those procedure-performing muscles! Remember, the type of procedures you'll be tackling will depend on your state's scope of practice, employer’s policies, and your competencies.



5 MOST IMPORTANT SKILLS AND ABILITIES NEEDED TO SUCCESSFULLY PERFORM YOUR DUTIES AS AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER


When deciding on becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner you must ensure that you have certain skills and abilities to perform your job successfully. Possessing these skills and abilities will ultimately lead to a successful patient outcome.

1. Critical thinking:

Effective critical thinking skills will be essential to navigating this highly technical and fast-paced environment of interventional radiology. These oh-so-important skills will enable you to make quick and informed decisions that will directly impact your patient’s outcome. You will need to rely on your aptitude to think critically and problem-solve to provide the highest level of care.

2. Communication:

As an interventional radiology NP your job will involve many intricate procedures that entail specialized equipment, making communicating instructions clearly and concisely crucial to your role and the patient’s safety. You must also have strong written and verbal communication skills, because you will repeatedly need to document and report on your patient's progress and response to any treatment they have received.

3. Adaptability:

In the fast-paced world of interventional radiology, your intended procedures and the stability of your patient can change quickly and without warning. In the blink of an eye. As a nurse practitioner in this field, you must be prepared to handle whatever gets thrown your way and be able to change your gears quickly so the patient will have the best possible outcome.

4. Multitasking:

The fast-paced nature of interventional radiology can be challenging to keep up with at times, but being able to handle multiple tasks simultaneously is imperative to be successful in this field. You must be able to juggle an assortment of responsibilities and always think one step ahead to ensure that your patient remains stable and safe.

5. Empathy:

An IRNP with a keen sense of empathy can support the patient in feeling calmer. Anytime a person undergoes a procedure it can be nerve-racking. Furthermore, if you have empathy, you can also recognize the patient's emotional state and concerns and provide medical care and support tailored to their needs.



WHERE DO INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONERS MOSTLY WORK? – TOP 3 WORK SETTINGS


Have you ever stopped and wondered where interventional radiology nurse practitioners work? Well, grab a seat and prepare to hear all about the top three work settings!

1. Hospitals:

In the hospital setting, you will work hand-in-glove with your radiologist counterparts to perform interventional procedures and deliver top-notch patient care in a sometimes high-pressure environment.

2. Ambulatory Care:

Your role in this setting is crucial, as you will work with other healthcare professionals to ensure your patients are given the right care plan, whether a quick fix or a longer-term treatment course. In this setting, you will apply your advanced knowledge of various imaging tests and procedures to diagnose and treat certain conditions.

3. Diagnostic Imaging:

As an Interventional Radiology NP, you may decide to work in a diagnostic imaging center where you can help create clear and concise visualizations of what's going on inside a patient's body. You will be like a detective, gathering all the evidence you will need to solve a mystery.



WHAT IS THE TYPICAL WORK SCHEDULE AND WORK HOURS OF AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NP?


Are you ready to dive into the nitty-gritty? If you are thinking about becoming an interventional radiology NP, I am sure you want to know what are the hours you could be working. Unfortunately, there's no one-size-fits-all answer to this question. Your hours will depend greatly on the setting you work in.

Typically, you'll have a Monday to Friday type job, 9 am to 5 pm schedule. But don't be taken back if you find yourself covering some weekend hours here and there. In an inpatient setting, you might even have to be on call and be prepared to jump into action if an emergency arises at any time of the day.



TOP 4 PROS OF BECOMING AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER


PRO #1: You will put your technology-driven mind to good use.

Do you want to get in on the action as an interventional radiology Nurse Practitioner - where cutting-edge tech is your ally! This career being technology-driven is one of the top pros of becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner because this pro will keep you at the forefront of medical innovation. Understanding this cutting-edge technology will also make you so much more marketable for any future endeavors you are considering.


PRO #2: You will find that boredom will take a back seat.

You can experience the best of both worlds as an interventional radiology Nurse Practitioner. One day you can be treating cardiac patients and the next day you can be tackling oncology cases. This stimulating role will offer you boundless opportunities to work with diverse medical specialties. Your every day will be different.


PRO #3: You do not need to be a night owl.

Another pro of becoming an interventional radiology NP is that most of the cases you work on take place during the daylight hours. Sure, you may have an emergency case arise here and there or you may find that you will have to work a weekend depending on what setting you choose to work. The good news for you is that generally, you will have a regular daytime schedule that will be excellent for your quality of life.


PRO #4: You will have one patient at a time.

One of the biggest advantages of becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is having the opportunity to give your patient your undivided attention. No need to spread yourself too thin. Instead, you can focus all your skills, energy and expertise on one patient at a time. You will be able to deliver personalized care and ensure that each detail is taken care of and not overlooked.



TOP 4 CONS OF BECOMING AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER


CON #1: You will have to be cautious of radiation exposure.

One of the top cons of becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is that you will be exposed to radiation daily. I don't mean to sound like a broken Geiger counter over here, but that is not a small detail. It's imperative to take the necessary precautions to keep yourself safe and healthy- after all, you can't take care of your patients if you're not taking care of yourself.


CON #2: You will have to do a bit of weight lifting.

So, here is another con for you regarding becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner: the dreaded lead apron. Yes, it's heavy. Yes, it's uncomfortable. And yes, it probably makes you feel like you're hauling a small child around on your chest. But hey, at least you're protecting your precious organs from radiation, right?


CON #3: How do your legs feel?

As an interventional radiology nurse practitioner, the last thing you want to hear is, "Sit down and take a load off." Unfortunately, being on your feet for hours on end for the duration of procedures can be a main con of the job. But hey, at least you're getting your daily steps in, right?


CON #4: You should not make plans too early in the evening.

One of the biggest disadvantages of becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is the inability to leave work on time. The nature of the job means that some cases will run behind, while some unforeseen emergency cases can come in. It's like a game of Tetris; you never know what shape the next block will be and how it'll fit in.



WHAT EDUCATION IS REQUIRED TO BECOME AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER AFTER HIGH SCHOOL?


So, let's look at what type of education you will need to earn to become an interventional radiology NP right out of high school. For this specialty of advanced practice nursing, there are no direct programs being offered by Colleges, so let’s dive in to see how you can earn this prestigious title.

First, you will need to earn a Bachelor's degree in Nursing. After that, you will need to move on to earning an advanced practice nursing degree. You will need to become a nurse practitioner. There are different types of NP programs on the market, but earning your FNP will make you more marketable. There are two pathways that you could take to complete this, the BSN to MSN-NP or the BSN to DNP-NP.

Further, the Association for Radiologic & Imaging Nursing can provide you with resources and continuing education courses to up your game. The final touch will be earning your certification to become a certified radiology nurse (CRN).



HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO BECOME AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER AFTER HIGH SCHOOL?


So, if you are in the process of trying to determine if becoming an interventional radiology NP after high school is a good fit for you, well I am sure you are wondering how long it will take to complete your education to become one. Well, the answer will depend on which path you elect to venture down. The first step in the education journey will be earning your BSN degree. This degree will entail anywhere from 36 to 48 months to finish. Next, you will need to decide between two paths with two different outcomes. One path will be the BSN-to-MSN degree, which will take about 12 to 24 months, or the other path which is a terminal degree, the BSN-to-DNP degree, which is 36 to 48 months to complete.

Program Type Program Length
BSN 36 to 48 Months
BSN-to-MSN (NP) 12 to 24 Months
BSN-to-DNP (NP) 36 to 48 Months



HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO BECOME AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER AFTER HIGH SCHOOL?


An additional significant factor that you must take into consideration when you are determining if becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is the right path for you, is the cost associated with earning this title.

Well, let me break this down for you financially. The cost of earning your BSN degree will vary from $8,730 to $219,450. If you choose to pursue the BSN-to-MSN degree, you can anticipate spending an additional $20,740 to $201,980 on top of the money you just shelled out on your BSN degree. If you choose the BSN-to-DNP route, you can expect to pay an added $28,390 to $277,320 on top of the cost of your BSN degree.

Program Type Program Cost
BSN $8,730 - $219,450
BSN-to-MSN (NP) $20,740 - $201,980
BSN-to-DNP (NP) $28,390 - $277,320



WHAT IS THE STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS OF BECOMING AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER AFTER HIGH SCHOOL?

(The following is a step-by-step process to become an Interventional Radiology nurse practitioner after high school.)


STEP #1:

The first step you must complete to become an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is to earn your Bachelor's degree in nursing (BSN). Of course, there are different paths that you can take to reach this ultimate goal. Still, the take-home is that you must complete this crucial first step before moving on to more advanced education that you will need.


STEP #2:

You must pass your state boards or the NCLEX exam. This exam will test your minimum competency level and assess your readiness to practice as a nurse.


STEP #3:

After acing the NCLEX-RN, it's time to snag the license you worked so hard to achieve. You will need to contact the state board of nursing in the state you plan to work your magic and complete the application process.


STEP #4:

Next, you must then gain some practice as a radiology nurse. Working as an RN in the field is not only required for you to sit for your radiology nurse certification, it is also something that I feel is an extremely important step to advancing your career. I feel that you need to gain the experience, knowledge and hands-on skills as an RN in this field first, before you can be an NP giving orders.


STEP #5:

Next, set your sights on becoming a radiology nurse (CRN). Before you can conquer the CRN exam, though, you've got to meet the eligibility requirements laid out by the Radiologic Nursing Certification Board (RNCB). These requirements include holding a current, unencumbered RN license in good standing, racking up at least 2,000 hours of registered nursing experience within the three years preceding your certification application, and completing 30 hours of continuing education in Radiology.


STEP #6:

Next, you must become an advanced practiced nurse. You can either pursue a Master's level degree or a doctoral degree to become a nurse practitioner.

You can choose to pursue the BSN to MSN path with a concentration as an FNP which will cost you anywhere from $20,740 - $201,980. This type of program will take you anywhere from two years full-time to three years part-time to complete.

If you are interested in a doctoral degree, you may choose to pursue the BSN to DNP degree. Pursuing this degree as an FNP will demand that you dedicate three years full-time or four to five years part-time. The BSN to DNP degree will cost you $28,390 - $277,320.


STEP #7:

Now that you have graduated with a degree as an NP, you must pass a National Board Certification exam within your specific patient population such as FNP. Keep in mind that you will be required to meet certain requirements such as continuing education credits to meet the requirements to renew your certification.


STEP #8:

After you pass your NP boards, you must apply for your Nurse Practitioner Licensure within your state. Keep in mind that each state will have its own set of requirements that you must meet in order to obtain and maintain your license. Also, some states will also mandate that you hold both an active unrestricted RN license and an NP license.


STEP #9:

You may also find that when you begin the clinical portion of your educational journey; you will learn certain aspects of the radiology discipline such as reading X-rays. If by the time you graduate your advanced nursing education, you may not have enough experience in the field of radiology. If this is the case, you may need to enroll in courses that can provide you with a foundation in this discipline so that you can demonstrate that you have the education in this area when you are applying for IRNP jobs.



WHAT ARE THE REQUIRED OR RECOMMENDED CERTIFICATIONS FOR INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONERS?


The CRN certification is a must-have if you wish to become an interventional radiology nurse practitioner. You do have to meet certain criteria in order to be eligible to sit for this exam. You'll need a current and unencumbered RN license in good standing and at least 2,000 hours of nursing experience within the past three years. You will also need to complete 30 hours of continuing education in the field of Radiology. The exam consists of 150 questions and you will need a 95 which means you will need to answer 73% of the questions correctly.

Other certifications that you may need depending on your employer are:

Basic Life Support (BLS):

Basic life support refers to the critical steps that you will need to take to maintain a patient's life in a medical emergency. This certification will encompass a range of techniques, such as (CPR) cardiopulmonary resuscitation, airway management, and defibrillation that you will use in the attempts to save a patient's life.

Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS):

This advanced specialized form of medical care is intended to provide emergency treatments and interventions that can help stabilize a child's vital signs and improve their probability of survival. This certification will include a number of diverse procedures and techniques, such as advanced airway management, IV medications, and electrical therapies.

Neonatal Advanced Life Support (NALS):

Neonatal Advanced Life Support, or NALS for short, is an advanced specialized type of medical care that is critical for saving the lives of newborn infants. This training will go beyond the basic skills and techniques. This certification will equip you with the tools and knowledge you will need to recognize and treat complex medical conditions in newborns. NALS concentrates on providing immediate and effective life-saving interventions, such as airway management, chest compressions, and medications, to stabilize a newborn's condition until further specialized care can be provided.

Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS):

This specialized certification is intended to educate you on how to treat and manage patients with acute neurological emergencies. Some of these emergencies that you will be trained to handle include strokes, traumatic brain injuries, and seizures. Through a combination of advanced monitoring technologies, medications, and procedures, your skill set will enable you to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent neurological care.

Advanced Radiology Life Support (ARLS):

The course will provide you with the knowledge and skills that are necessary to manage medical emergencies that may arise in imaging facilities. ARLS is designed to educate you on how to manage and how treat a range of medical scenarios, including cardiac arrest, allergic reactions, and contrast extravasation.

Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS):

Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support, is a course that will go beyond basic life support measures by prioritizing the rapid intervention and stabilization of patients with life-threatening cardiovascular emergencies. You will gain the knowledge and skills to recognize and respond to cardiac events. You will learn how to manage severe arrhythmias, acute coronary syndromes, and respiratory arrest. ACLS encompasses advanced assessment techniques, pharmacology, and invasive procedures to effectively treat these emergencies.



WHAT IS THE STARTING SALARY OF A NEW GRAD INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER?


If you are just starting your career as an Interventional Radiology NP, you can expect to have an annual income of $106,110. This annual salary will break down to an hourly rate of $51.01 or a weekly wage of $2,041. This means you can pretty much bet on earning $8,840 a month.

Hourly$51.01
Weekly$2,041
Monthly$8,840
Annual$106,110



WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SALARY OF AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER?


So, now let's take a look at what the average interventional radiology nurse practitioner salary is. In this role, you would be earning an average annual salary of $151,469. This annual salary will give you a monthly income of $12,620 or $2,913 weekly. This means your hourly wage will be around $72.82.

Hourly$72.82
Hourly$2,913
Monthly$12,620
Annual$151,469
(Source: Glassdoor.com)



WHAT IS THE SALARY BY LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE OF AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER?


Once you start your career and gain some experience as an interventional radiology NP, your salary will reflect it. For example, the entry-level interventional radiology nurse practitioner will have an annual salary of $106,110. Once you have worked in this role for anywhere from one to four years, your salary will rise to $125,430 a year.

As an interventional radiology NP who has anywhere from five to nine years of experience under your belt, you will have a weekly earning of $2,412. If you have anywhere from ten to nineteen years of experience, you will see your weekly income increase to $3,165.

Now, once you have worked in this field for at least twenty years, your salary will rise to a lovely $200,740 a year. I guess you can say you have been rewarded handsomely for all your hard work and dedication.

Level of Experience Hourly Weekly Monthly Annual
Entry-Level $51.01 $2,041 $8,840 $106,110
1-4 Years of Experience $60.30 $2,412 $10,450 $125,430
5-9 Years of Experience $71.03 $2,841 $12,310 $147,740
10-19 Years of Experience $79.13 $3,165 $13,720 $164,580
20 Years or More Experience $96.51 $3,860 $16,730 $200,740



WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SALARY OF AN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONER BY STATE?


Your salary as an interventional radiology NP will vary from state to state. It is not uniform. For example, if you want to work in Tennessee, you can expect to earn $120,670 a year. In California, you could be earning $192,110 for doing the same job.

State Hourly Weekly Monthly Annual
Alabama $62.27 $2,491 $10,790 $129,520
Alaska $67.98 $2,719 $11,780 $141,400
Arizona $70.91 $2,837 $12,290 $147,500
Arkansas $62.56 $2,502 $10,840 $130,120
California $92.36 $3,694 $16,010 $192,110
Colorado $68.01 $2,720 $11,790 $141,460
Connecticut $76.80 $3,072 $13,310 $159,740
Delaware $70.42 $2,817 $12,210 $146,480
Florida $64.43 $2,577 $11,170 $134,010
Georgia $67.42 $2,697 $11,690 $140,240
Hawaii $74.94 $2,998 $12,990 $155,880
Idaho $68.75 $2,750 $11,920 $143,010
Illinois $71.44 $2,858 $12,380 $148,590
Indiana $71.10 $2,844 $12,320 $147,890
Iowa $74.87 $2,995 $12,980 $155,720
Kansas $65.22 $2,609 $11,310 $135,660
Kentucky $63.83 $2,553 $11,060 $132,770
Louisiana $69.04 $2,762 $11,970 $143,610
Maine $69.10 $2,764 $11,980 $143,720
Maryland $69.88 $2,795 $12,110 $145,360
Massachusetts $81.01 $3,240 $14,040 $168,500
Michigan $66.46 $2,658 $11,520 $138,230
Minnesota $74.86 $2,994 $12,980 $155,700
Mississippi $68.49 $2,739 $11,870 $142,450
Missouri $66.11 $2,644 $11,460 $137,500
Montana $70.06 $2,803 $12,140 $145,730
Nebraska $69.49 $2,779 $12,040 $144,530
Nevada $79.57 $3,183 $13,790 $165,500
New Hampshire $73.47 $2,939 $12,730 $152,810
New Jersey $83.67 $3,347 $14,500 $174,030
New Mexico $75.67 $3,027 $13,120 $157,400
New York $82.63 $3,305 $14,320 $171,870
North Carolina $66.85 $2,674 $11,590 $139,040
North Dakota $66.55 $2,662 $11,540 $138,420
Ohio $68.59 $2,744 $11,890 $142,670
Oklahoma $71.11 $2,844 $12,330 $147,900
Oregon $79.58 $3,183 $13,790 $165,520
Pennsylvania $70.41 $2,816 $12,200 $146,450
Rhode Island $73.15 $2,926 $12,680 $152,160
South Carolina $63.74 $2,550 $11,050 $132,580
South Dakota $67.52 $2,701 $11,700 $140,450
Tennessee $58.01 $2,321 $10,060 $120,670
Texas $72.81 $2,912 $12,620 $151,440
Utah $67.52 $2,701 $11,700 $140,450
Vermont $68.11 $2,724 $11,810 $141,670
Virginia $68.32 $2,733 $11,840 $142,110
Washington $79.19 $3,168 $13,730 $164,720
West Virginia $62.38 $2,495 $10,810 $129,740
Wisconsin $70.79 $2,832 $12,270 $147,250
Wyoming $67.30 $2,692 $11,670 $139,990



WHAT IS THE JOB OUTLOOK LIKE FOR INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONERS?


One important topic we should touch base about is the job outlook for this career. It is important to understand what the job market will look like for you before becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner. Good news for you, a career as an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is projected to have positive growth of 45.68% from the years 2021 to 2031. This means you have chosen a career path that does not seem to be going anywhere.

2021-31
+45.68%



USEFUL ORGANIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS FOR INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NURSE PRACTITIONERS


1. The Association for Radiologic & Imaging Nursing:

The Association for Radiologic & Imaging Nursing (ARIN) is a must-know organization if you plan on a career as an interventional radiology nurse practitioner. Luckily, this organization is not shy about sharing their wealth of resources with you.

The ARIN represents a huge variety of practice areas, leaving little to be desired from the perspective of aspiring or practicing IRNPs. The ARIN will also offer you information about continuing education and certification opportunities, making it all the easier to up your game and become a true radiology ninja.



MY FINAL THOUGHTS


Becoming an interventional radiology nurse practitioner is a demanding but rewarding process. It will require your dedication, hard work, and willingness to take risks to truly get the most out of the experience. There is no singular path to achieve this success, but by understanding the interventional radiology nurse practitioner – what do they do, steps-to-become, pros & cons, and salary, you can get closer to achieving your ultimate goal. It is key to bear in mind that IRNP work isn't just about going through the motions of performing procedures; it's also about improving the quality of life through advanced medical care.



FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ANSWERED


1. On Average, How Much Does An Interventional Radiology NP Make Per Hour?

The average salary of an interventional radiology nurse practitioner per hour is $72.82.

$72.82


2. On Average, How Much Does An Interventional Radiology NP Make Per Week?

The average salary of an interventional radiology nurse practitioner per week is $2,913.

$2,913


3. On Average, How Much Does An Interventional Radiology NP Make Per Month?

The average salary of an interventional radiology nurse practitioner per month is $12,620.

$12,620


4. On Average, How Much Does An Interventional Radiology NP Make Per Year?

The average salary of an interventional radiology nurse practitioner per year is $151,469.

$151,469


Jennifer Schlette MSN, RN
Jennifer Schlette is a registered nurse in pediatric critical care in New York City. She is the former Director of Undergraduate Nursing at a college located in New York. After obtaining her BSN from the College of Mount Saint Vincent, she went on to complete her MSN.